Dresden is the capital of Saxony State in Germany which is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the border with the Czech Republic. Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendour. The city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed approximately 25,000, many of whom were civilians, and destroyed the entire city centre. After the war restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Semper Oper and the Dresdner Frauenkirche as well as the suburbs.
Zwinger Palace is a magnificent complex in Dresden consisting of four sides of a square with a beautiful garden ion the center. The construction of the park was started in 1709, but the project was too large and that is why was partly completed only in 1732 and was finished in the mid-19th century.
The name Zwinger was taken from the one of the fortified citadel, which in the Middle Ages there was between the two walls of the fortress. The first building Zwinger was built of wood, later the architect Matthaus has Pёppelmann rebuilt it in stone. Today in the Zwinger buildings there are the most important and interesting museums of the city.
Five museums Zwinger famous all over the world: Dresden Art Gallery, Physics and Mathematics, the Museum of Sculpture, Porcelain Museum and the Museum of Mineralogy and Geology.
Dresden Art Gallery
Dresden is one of the most beautiful cities in Germany, and its picture gallery is a miust-see place of the city.
The important part of Dresden Art Gallery is Raphael's "Sistine Madonna", which encouraged visitors to the museum over the past 250 years. Gallery was founded in the 16th century King Frederick the Wise, but the public collections of the museum became available only in the late 19th century. During World War II, Dresden Art Gallery was bombed several times and unfortunately some of the paintings could not be saved.
Today, Dresden Art Gallery have one of the largest collections of paintings in the world, which contains paintings by Rembrandt, Rubens, Peter, Albrecht Durer, Velasquez, Nicholas Poussin and other famous artist
Frauenkirche is a Lutheran church in Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony. An earlier church building was Roman Catholic until it became Protestant during the Reformation, and was replaced in the 18th century by a larger Baroque Lutheran building. It is considered an outstanding example of Protestant sacred architecture, featuring one of the largest domes in Europe. It now also serves as a symbol of reconciliation between former warring enemies.
The church was built in the 18th century but then was destroyed in the bombing during World War II. The remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, following decisions of local East German leaders. The church was rebuilt after the reunification of Germany, starting in 1994. The reconstruction of its exterior was completed in 2004, and the interior in 2005. The church was reconsecrated on 30 October 2005 with festive services lasting through the Protestant observance of Reformation Day on 31 October. The surrounding Neumarkt square with its many valuable baroque buildings was also reconstructed in 2004.
The Frauenkirche is often called a cathedral, but it is not the seat of a bishop; the church of the Landesbischof of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Saxony is the Church of the Cross. Once a month, an Anglican Evensong is held in English, by clergy from St. George's Anglican Church, Berlin.